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Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales
by Gisli H. Gudjonsson, CBE, PHD

Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales

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***Qualified Instrument - Doctoral Degree Required*** Please read description before ordering.
Order Code:GSS

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Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (Manual, 10 of each Scoresheet, and informational insert on the use of The GSS in the USA) - $199.95 (GSSPAK) ***Qualified Instrument*** (read below before ordering*)
Pack of Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales Scoresheets (10 each of the GSS 1, GSS 2, and GCS) - $25.00 (GSSF) ***Qualified Instrument*** (read below before ordering*)
Informational insert (The Use of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in the USA ) - $10.00 (GSSI) ***Qualified Instrument*** (read below before ordering*)
*Please read before ordering.

***QUALIFIED INSTRUMENT - Doctoral Degree Required***  
The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS) can be purchased by qualified professionals only (licensed psychologists or psychiatrists).  Orders for this item will not be shipped unless you establish your qualifications with Professional Resource Press, or have done so previously.  If you have not, please click here: Qualifications Print and complete the form and fax toll-free to (866) 804-4843, or scan and email to

  • Complete Kit (Manual, 10 of each Scoresheet, and informational insert on the use of The GSS in the USA)
  • Pack of Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales Scoresheets (10 each of the GSS 1, GSS 2, and GCS)
  • Informational Insert (The Use of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in the USA)

The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 1) and its parallel form (the GSS 2) were developed for research, forensic, and clinical applications.  They give a reliable measure of verbal memory recall, both immediate and delayed, and “interrogative suggestibility,” which has been shown to have two distinct components: “Yield” and “Shift.”  The GSS 1 and GSS 2 also provide objective measures of “confabulation” which refers to problems in memory processing where people replace gaps in their memory with imaginary recollections.

The Scales were developed in order to measure objectively the vulnerabilities or proneness of people to give erroneous accounts when interviewed.  The Scales  are particularly applicable to police interviewing contexts, but they can be usefully applied to any interview situation, including clinical practice.  They can be used with forensic populations, victims and witnesses to crime, those with intellectual disabilities, and children and adolescents.

A parallel development to the GSS 1 and GSS 2 has been the construction of the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale (GCS).  In contrast to the Suggestibility Scales, the GCS is a self-report measure and it measures the construct of compliance, which is mainly comprised of an eagerness to please and avoidance of conflict and confrontation.  It complements the work conducted into “interrogative suggestibility.”  Research has shown that both suggestibility and compliance are relevant to police interviewing and clinical practice.

The Manual provides the reader with a clear and concise description of the ways in which the Scales are administered, scored, and evaluated.  The Scales have been extensively standardized and validated on a variety of populations.  Norms and percentile rank scores are provided as well as a comprehensive bibliography.

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
        A model of interrogative suggestibility
        Background to the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS)
        Types of information derived from the Scales
        The Gudjonsson Compliance Scale (GCS)
2. The Content of the Scales
        The construction of the GSS 1 and GSS 2
        The GSS 1 story
        The GSS 2 story
        The construction and content of the GCS
3. Administration and Scoring
        The GSS 1 and GSS 2
        The GCS
4. Statistical Properties of the Scales
       Factor analysis of the items
        Inter-scorer reliability of the GSS 1 and GSS 2
        Test-retest reliability
        Standard error of measurement of the GSS 1 and GSS 2
        The validity of the GSS 1 and GSS 2
        The validity of confabulation
        The validity of the GCS
5. Standardisation of the Scales
        General background of the norms
        Norms for the GSS 1
        Norms for the GSS 2
        GSS scores of persons with intellectual disabilities
        Confabulation scores on the GSS 2
        GSS scores of children
        Norms for the GCS
6. Practical Testing Considerations

About the Author
Gisli H. Gudjonsson, CBE, PHD, is an Emeritus Professor of Forensic Psychology at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, and a Professor of Psychology at Reykjavik University. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and a registered practitioner (clinical and forensic) with the Health Care Professions Council (HCPC).

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